Why I’m Leaving Rackspace Hosting for AWS

Rackspace is an American based web hosting company that, for many years, was touted as the premier managed web server hosting provider. They have never been “cheap”; however, in my opinion, you received far more than what you paid for, and their tech support was second to none. I guess that is why they previously branded themselves under the motto of “Fanatical Support.”

One of the tech startups I co-founded has been a Rackspace customer for a little over ten years now. In the beginning, we started with a single dedicated webserver, adding a dedicated Cisco firewall soon after. Within a year or so, we had outgrown our simple single webserver and upgraded and expanded throughout the years into multiple dedicated webservers to handle our needs.

As Rackspace expanded its product lines to cloud servers, email box hosting, and MongoDB services, we quickly signed up and increased our monthly financial commitment to them. I know we were never their largest customer by any means; however, in 2019, I have spent just over $82,966, so we are not their smallest customer either.  

For many years we loved our service and happily (as happy as you can be to ever pay a bill) paid each month. Then . . . a few years ago, something happened. It is hard to put an exact date on when the change occurred; things were not the same as years past.  

At first, the tech support would take a little longer to get back with you. Gone were the 20-minute support ticket replies; now it would be an hour or two before they emailed you back. Not usually a problem, but still a little annoying. Then I started to notice that on the weekends or late at nights, you were lucky if you heard anything back on your support ticket. You just accepted the fact that you had to wait until regular business hours to get a reply.

Many of the server techs that I knew by name, the same guys (and gals) that also knew my systems intimately; all disappeared, replaced with inexperienced technicians that were only barely a step above “did you plug in the computer?” level of support. Each time I chatted or spoke on the phone, I would have to explain everything in explicit detail and almost guide them along on how to do their job. I could no longer rely on them being the expert.

Things started to get worse, but we stuck with it.

Even with the less than stellar level of support, it was just easier to leave our webservers in place, upgrade them as needed, but not to make any drastic switches, as doing so would be a considerable project.

Back in 2015, our servers were hit with a distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) which took our websites, and the websites of our customers offline. The attack was intermittent and would come in waves of 2-3 minute attacks every 30 minutes to an hour or so. This gave just enough time for the webserver to come back online and let customers login, then bam, it was taken offline again.

After about a day of this on again off again DDoS, one of the Rackspace reps recommended a premium service they offered called ‘DDoS Mitigation.’ This premium service was an additional $1,500 per month and was like an insurance policy, “you hope you never need it, but if you do, it is there for you.” They explained their mitigation service was continually monitoring my servers 24x7x365. If another DDoS attack came in, they would react instantly to redirect the malicious traffic away from our infrastructure, keeping our network up for our customers.

We signed up for the service and moved on with life. Luckily for us, we went another three years without a single DDoS attack. We knew we were paying $1,500 a month for the service and haven’t used it, but it was an investment in the peace of mind knowing our servers would stay online, and our customer’s websites would not go down.

The Final Straw

Now we flash forward to Aug 2019; by this time, we have had the DDoS mitigation service for about three years and spent about $54,000 in total just on the DDoS mitigation service. On this day, we were hit with another DDoS attack. For comparison, the attack that first prompted us to signup for DDoS mitigation I will refer to as “1X” strength. August’s attack as 10X in strength.  

Luckily, while the attack was “more powerful,” it was not very sophisticated. I was sitting at my desk and could hear our office tech support phone lines begin to ring like crazy. I knew there was a problem. Within a few minutes, I was getting frantic IMs sent to me from my tech support staff, informing me the server was down. I did some quick investigations and discovered we were under attack. I was able to quickly isolate the website that was targetted in the attack and was able to DNS that site over to Cloudflare’s network.  

Our servers were down for about 30 minutes before I was able to get the issue mitigated on my own. Watching the Cloudflare reports, I could see the DDoS continued off-and-on for a few days, thankfully Cloudflare was able to prevent that traffic from hitting my network.

Then I contacted Rackspace to politely ask them, “WTF? Why didn’t the DDoS Mitigation kick in and protect us?” Their response, if not so infuriating, was laughable. “Ohh, it wasn’t big enough for us to even notice.”

“Excuse me, what?”

They acknowledged it was a more massive attack that the attack I had years ago, but since I mitigated it “so quickly,” they didn’t have the “time” to do anything. Wait? What? Our servers were down for 30 minutes, and they sold me on “24x7x365” monitoring. That was why I paid $54,000!

We would go on to argue with Rackspace for the next four months that I wanted to cancel the DDoS mitigation because it was useless. The only option they gave was for me to “buy my way out” of the contract. Even after I showed them quoted emails from their staff assuring me the DDoS Mitigation would protect me, they didn’t care.

Finally, after four months of arguing, they allowed me to cancel my contract, a whopping two months early. Big deal, thanks for nothing, guys. But they refused to give a refund for the prior four months that I had asked it to be canceled while they stonewalled.

So now, for $6,000 they stole and refused to refund, they are willing to give up on $80,000+ per year in revenue. This is even after I had been working with my sales rep to purchase more servers and bring my cost to about $100k per year.

Rackspace’s service has gone to shit over the years. I was putting up with it as it was “just easier” than switching everything. This was the final straw. It wasn’t that the $6,000 was a “make or break” issue for me financially. It was the principle of it. They knew they had sold me a service that would not provide the level of service they promised. Simply put, they did not care.

The Switch to Amazon Web Services (AWS)

I had already been using AWS for a few services that Rackspace didn’t offer for one of my other tech startups, and decided to move all of my web services over to AWS.  

In future posts, I will describe my transition to AWS.

Overuse of the Terms “Bully” and “Victim”

I feel that we must take a moment and discuss how terms like “bully” and “victim” are overused, and how this overuse of the words is harmful to real victims of bullying.

If you rank of popular words in America today; one word that is bound to be prominent in the result is the word “bully.” Without any doubt, bullying is an activity that deserves every attention that is being paid to it around the world, and perhaps even more care is needed. However, there is a somewhat strange aura about the bully in schools, workplace, and the society at large, there seems to be a misconception of what qualifies as bullying. Anytime the word is mentioned, the mood automatically shifts from casual to serious because the gravity of the consequences that accompany the act is endless.

It is clear that from times past, a lot has been done to stem the tide of bullying in human society and yet if you watch the 24-hour news channels or read a news article online, everyone is seemingly a victim of bullying.  It does not matter if the report is about a divorce case in court with one of the two parties labeling the other party as a bully or for a student to name his classmate as a bully, or for the President to be called a bully just because he does not follow the same political ideology of another.

The use of the word is also common in the workplace as subordinates and superiors often slam the word on any individual or character they often disagree with. It is impossible to disagree with another without you being labeled a bully.

The word “bully” is so commonly used in the society today that the average person already believes they know exactly what the word means and they do not bother to read a dictionary to find its actual definition, Merriam Webster Dictionary defines a bully as:

a blustering, browbeating person especially : one who is habitually cruel, insulting, or threatening to others who are weaker, smaller, or in some way vulnerable

The key is habitually cruel to others. It also goes on to define a bully as a tormenter who has an imbalance of power and uses this behavior towards others on a constant basis. It is imperative that the true meaning of a word be properly understood before being applied and used; otherwise, it may lead to a problem especially with developing laws to tackle issues. After all, a problem has to be fully understood before help can be proposed. In the definition above, some key factors are essential or necessary for a person’s actions to be aptly termed as “bullying.”

According to the definition above, among other things; a bully must habitually cruel, i.e. have a track record of cruelty in his dealings with others around him. The bully must also be a tormenter, i.e. he must be an individual that thrives and derive joy from seeing others in pain and anguish. He or she must also have an inordinate appetite for power and dominion; so that he wants to impose his opinion and ideas on others forcefully and aggressively regularly. Based on these clarifications, a bully must be consistently aggressive towards his victims.

Bringing this definition back to the schoolyard or even to online social media based cyberbullying.  The bully must be relentless and consistent in the torment of their victim(s). An isolated instance with the passing of a comment like “she is fat” or “look at those zits, dork” is an example of being a jerk, not a bully.  Of course, I am not saying that those comments should be made or that as educators and parents we should ignore those comments. Being a jerk is not acceptable, and we must teach our youth those comments are not socially acceptable.  I am saying; however, that these examples, which account for many cases of bullying do not rise to the level of victimization and calling them such only diminishes the words.

“So who cares?” is what you are probably thinking, right?  What is the harm in calling a simple schoolyard jerk a bully and the target of his or her meanness as a victim?  The harm is when you lump these cases together into the same grouping with instances of real torment perpetrated by bullies.  More specifically, if everyone is desensitized to the term bully then when a youth wishes to report an actual instance of bullying to adults it can be too easily dismissed as “kids will be kids.”  Put simply, if everyone is a victim, then nobody is.

Another critical reason to distinguish between name calling and fights being the gym, and actual cases of bullying is most cases of kids getting into tights, verbal or even physical, is a two-way street.  Whereas, bullying is one way with the target of victimization innocent of any wrongdoing.

Children are not stupid; in some ways, they are more cunning than adults give them credit.  Kids know if they run to an adult and say “he is being a bully and picking on me,” that the adult will storm over to the bully and stop the action.  Even if, unbeknown to the adult, both children were equal in their unkindness towards each other. In these cases, which account for many, who is the victim?  Was it the child that ran to the adult or the purported bully? I feel the alleged bully was the victim as he or she will undoubtedly receive punishment, whereas the other kid that reported the alleged act was most likely just as guilty.   Do not blindly allow a child to assume the role of a victim without investigation.

Only by separating the occasional name calling and simple fights in the schoolyard from constant tormenting of another by a bully can we ever help to remedy the situation.  Of course, just as I stated above, schoolyard fights and name calling should still be addressed at the administrative level with adequate punishment for all parties guilty, please do not call it bullying.

Now that we know what bullying is not, let’s delve into what it actually is; doing this will help expose the glaring overuse of the term in our society today. Bullying can be broken down into four main groups; physical, verbal, social and material:

  • Bullying can be physical when it involves acts such as tripping, pushing intentionally, hitting or striking a person.
  • It can be verbal when it involves the use of insulting words to threaten, mock and ridicule another person. Verbal bullying can also include the use of hostile remarks such as sexist or racist remarks or the use of stereotypic statements that discriminate against or unjustly amplify the physical defects or characteristics of a person. Bullying can be termed as social bullying when it involves consciously propagating lies and rumors about someone to smear their image and deplete their worth in society.
  • Social bullying also involves such acts and behaviors that are clearly targeted at isolating and excluding an individual from a group activity in a bid to humiliate them.
  • Material bullying just as the name suggests include the deliberate destruction and vandalism of goods or property belonging to someone else. It can also involve forcefully or falsely taking something belonging to someone without their prior consent, i.e. taking a kid’s lunch money or other item with or without value.

On the other hand, we must also itemize and discuss acts that do not constitute bullying. Based on the dynamic nature of human behavior, it is quite easy to categorize any unwanted or diversionary behavior from someone as bullying even when it really is not.

Cyberbullying: The 21st Century School Yard

The concept of bullying is almost as old as humanity itself. Anywhere humans exist; the tendency to seek dominion over one another is a given. Perhaps, it is not just restricted to humans; even animals exhibit traits of dominance over another. Anywhere there is a consistent and regular gathering of people; it is typical for a few members of the population to show domineering traits over another; this is why schools have been such a natural breeding ground for bullying for such a long time.

Being confined in a single location consistently during the day is bound to bring out the real personality of that person. This is why one of the best institutions to observe human behavior in its natural form is the school. Children begin to show their dominant and subjective sides based on their evaluation of others around them. This perhaps is the reason why the school is the place with the highest power play as individuals struggle within themselves to gain powers over another in a way that mimic what obtains in the political arena.

In previous generations, bullying took place on the actual playground, hallways, and classrooms and usually involved a student that was physically larger, relatively weak academically and not particularly admired by other kids in the school. A bully would target a student he or she thought was vulnerable and harass them.  Sometimes it would be the old stealing the milk money or verbal threats like “meet me behind the gym after class, and I’m gonna beat you.”  

Although bullying has been around for long, the advent of the internet has only gone ahead to amplify bullying by creating a sub-division of it which is known as cyberbullying.  No longer is the bully standing directly in front of their victim in the playground or hallway. Now the bully can hide behind the anonymity of a pseudonym, making it difficult to identify the actual culprit. In an effort to protect children, today’s youth are far more supervised during the school day than previous generations.  This has had the unintended effect of “normalization of bullying behaviors by requiring bullies to adopt methods that can be used in more public areas,” such as the abuse of technology to bully their victims.

Although bullying has been around for long, the advent of the internet has only gone ahead to amplify bullying by creating a sub-division of it which is known as cyberbullying.  No longer is the bully standing directly in front of their victim in the playground or hallway. Now the bully can hide behind the anonymity of a pseudonym, making it difficult to identify the actual culprit.

In an effort to protect children, today’s youth are far more supervised during the school day than previous generations.  This has had the unintended effect of “normalization of bullying behaviors by requiring bullies to adopt methods that can be used in more public areas,” such as the abuse of technology to bully their victims.

Nowadays, it is a rarity to come across a child who has not been affected in some way by bullying in recent times. According to the Pediatric Academic Societies in their general meeting held 5th of May, 2013 in Washington DC:

Step into a class of 30 high school students and look around, five of them have been victims of electronic bullying in the past year.

Psychologically, when a behavior is not punished, it is rewarded. The lack of stringent measures to tackle bullying in the school has led to a steady rise in bullying everywhere in the world today. Bullies who started in the school having graduated from schools into a higher school level or in the workplace have continued to exhibit and practice their bullying unrestrained therefore making the society less and less healthy by the day. A cursory look towards major governmental agencies and public office holders easily reflect this trend of bullies now occupying positions of the authority having graduated from school and continued to master and hone their art everywhere they find themselves unashamedly.

“Psychologically contemptuous, rue behaviors are called gateway behaviors, since they are used as beginning or low-level, low-risk ways of asserting power or expression contempt.”

Without proper intervention these gateway behaviors can increase in frequency and escalate in severity.  Research shows that today, gateway behaviors are used substantially more often than other, more obvious types of bullying behaviors.  In 2012, only 6 percent of respondents reported being victims of physical bullying while in high school, but 34 percent reported being victims of distressing rumors or lies.

It is evident that the issue with cyberbullying is connected to the usage of the internet. Hence it is apparent that the usability of the internet is the major problem more than the children themselves. Yes, it is true that multiple factors combine to contribute to bullying ideation in children, yet, there seems reasonable evidence to suggest that early exposure to the technological gadgets and the internet has made the issue more complicated than it naturally ought to be. The internet promotes anonymity, and when this is in place, many unsocial and negative traits inherent in human beings begin to come out and manifest naturally.

Children must be educated on their powers and abilities to resist being bullied either by their teachers or by their colleagues. Conferences can be organized for them to motivate them on the need to believe in themselves and ignore the bullies or fight back and report to the authorities if they are bullied again. Bullying is not a one, and for all event, it tends to be repeated even as the bully seek to stamp his authority on his victim and build a fear factor around himself. The fight to reclaim the integrity of the school system back must begin from here. It will no doubt be an arduous and tasking one, but it will be one where the reward outweighs the sacrifices involved.

Children are highly impressionable, and a lot must be done to protect and shield them from exposure to antisocial behaviors either at home or at school. Parents must be orientated on acts that reasonably constitute bullying so that they can adjust their conduct at home and everywhere accordingly. Parents are first of all role models for their children; hence they must play their role well as role models and ensure they only replicate acts that are wholesome and loving before their children. The upbringing of children is a joint venture between teacher and parents hence teachers should work with school authorities to promote healthy communication and relationship between students at all times and where a child consistently exhibit bullying tendencies toward his peers, the parents must be contacted and urged to address the issue with their child appropriately.

The school may recommend and advise parents on the best approach to handling the issue. It is imperative that teachers and parents be made aware of the severity of bullying on the mental and emotional development of children. It is an act that can rob the society of brilliant inventions and innovations that can advance the course of humanity and make life easier and more pleasant. Worse of all, bullying is an act that can engender suicidal thoughts and ideation such that can rob families of their precious children. This is why schoolyard bullying is an activity that must be tackled headlong.

Notwithstanding, it is important to repeat and elaborate on the point made in the previous section that not all activities of unkindness warrant direct intervention from adults.  As painful as it may be to watch, children must learn tactics to handle meanness from others, and adults should only intervene when it is necessary. It is our responsibility to know when we must intervene in a situation to prevent or at least reduce the damage done to another child.  Only through educational programs of all parties involved, the educators, parents, and children; both those that could be victims and those that could be perpetrators, can we hope to make a positive impact.

This education starts with reducing the overuse of the words bully and victim.

How Facial Recognition Works


Facial recognition is a process of using computer vision based mathematics to detect and recognize a human face in a photograph or video. Using biometrics the facial recognition system maps facial features such as the location and shape of the eye, nose, mouth, distinguishable landmarks unique to the person and other geometric aspects to the face.

Complex mathematical algorithms are used to produce a numerical sequence that represents the face in a language a computer can understand. This “faceprint” is as unique as a human fingerprint and can be analyzed in real time to identify people as they walk past a video CCT security camera.

The facial recognition industry is expected to grow to over $7.7 billion annually in 2022, nearly doubling from $4 billion in 2017.

For privacy-minded individuals, you will want to pay close attention to how and by whom your faceprint data is used. The technology itself is not dangerous and people do not need to be paranoid about “big brother watching you.” Cautious? Yes, but paranoid about facial recognition technology, no.

Just like all technology, those that are criminally minded can abuse facial recognition. Luckily there are also good uses including: unlocking your iPhone with FaceID, fighting back against revenge porn, scrubbing the internet of child porn, airport security, automatically tag your friends in social media photos, casinos protecting visitors from thieves, protecting online daters from fraudulent profile scams, mobile apps for law enforcement, among so many other great uses.

In the past, most systems required the person to face the camera and have their face correctly framed within the photo. This may work for mug shots taken by the local Sheriff’s Office, but for real-time analysis of CCT security camera footage people as they walk by, newer technology needed to be invented.

Now, many systems can build a 3D representation of the human face based upon multiple photos known to be of that individual, giving the system a more detailed understanding of that person’s unique facial attributes.

All uses of this technology, for good and evil, requires advanced neural networks trained to work together to provide the user with the desired service.


Article Quick Links


America Hijacked
America Hijacked

Breaking Down the Steps

Humans are great at recognizing people’s faces; we have had more than 2 million years of evolutionary adaptation behind us. Computers, even with all of their power cannot natively look at a person’s face and say “That’s Aunt Betty.”

Computer vision research started in the 1960s with scientists teaching computers how to detect and recognize a human face. Computers have come a long way since the 60s, but they still must be trained what to look at and how to distill that information down to binary computer language of 1s and 0s.

Before a computer can recognize a face in a photo, it must first determine if a human face is even in the picture. Facial recognition is very expensive in terms of computing power, whereas simple ‘is there a person in the photo’ is very inexpensive. For this reason, systems elect first to verify if there is a person in the photo before attempting the more complicated matching the photo to an actual person’s identity. This process is called Face Detection

1) Face Detection

A photo is analyzed to find the human face(s) within the image. Each face detected is isolated and processed separately. Open source libraries such as OpenCV and dlib are standard; of course, there are also many proprietary systems in use as well.

2) Alignment

The face is cropped from the original picture with the eyes and mouth aligned in a common location for all photos. With these attributes in the same general area for all images, it makes the next steps easier for the computer.

3) Representation

The facial recognition software will then generate a unique and propriety identifier for this face based upon the facial landmarks detected. This identifier is usually represented by a series of floating point integers (computer geek speak for a number with a decimal point). In this step, the system detects and extracts all of the meaningful data that it will use to generate your faceprint.

128D array ‘faceprint’

Of course, these numbers do not really mean much to us as mere mortals, to a computer this is what a human face looks like. Each number in the array is a numerical representation showing the location of the eyes, nose, mouth, etc.

4) Matching

With this unique identifier, the facial recognition software will then query a database of hundreds, thousands, or even millions of known identities and return a list of possible matches.

This query to the database is performed by comparing the Euclidean distance between the positions of each array element’s floating point element compared to that of the same element of a different person’s array. If the Euclidean distance of all 128 points is less than 0.6 it is a strong candidate for a match.

Euclidean Distance

Depending on how powerful the system is, in most cases the above four steps are processed and returned to the user in milliseconds. Now a human can manually verify the results returned by the system.

In our example, the girl from ‘Face 1’ is already known to the database and returns her information:


Training

We have covered the basics of how to detect a face in a photo and searched our database to see if that person is known, but we skipped a very important step.

Before you can run Face Detection or Face Recognition, you must create and train computer vision models so that the computer knows what a human face “looks like.” There are some great python wrappers around dlib like face_recognition that are open source and are already trained. Or if you are more adventurous, you can train your own models, I will direct you to an excellent article by Dr. Adrian Rosebrock on how to train a facial recognition model.

Face Clustering

An essential piece of a facial recognition system is the ability to intelligently group photographs of the same person into groups, or clusters. This can be accomplished through manual, semi-automated, and fully automated processes. By clustering these photos together, the system can better handle occlusion issues that partially block parts of the face in an individual photo such as sunglasses, hairstyles that cover part of the face, etc.

Clustering can also help by grouping photos of a person from dozens of different angles giving a complete representation of the person’s unique facial structure in 3-dimensional space.


Law Enforcement Use of Facial Recognition

MorphoTrust Idemia, is one of the largest vendors of face recognition and other biometric identification technology in the United States. It has designed systems for state DMVs, federal and state law enforcement agencies, border control and airports (including TSA PreCheck), and the state department.

Common vendors include 3M, Susped.ID, Cognitec, DataWorks Plus, stockNum Systems, FaceFirst, and NEC Global.

Suspect Photo Matching

Back in the day police departments had to manually search filing cabinets and mug books filled with photographs of suspects. Now they can use smartphone apps to take a quick photo of a suspect and instantly have their criminal records and personal information displayed on the screen for their review.

Many of these systems work together with social networking and other integrated surveillance systems to provide a complete look into a person’s identity.

Fighting Revenge Porn

Tech services that assist law enforcement and private sector litigators to search for and combat online revenge porn uploads from ex-boyfriends and ex-girlfriends.

Battling Child Porn

While not technically “Facial Recognition” per se, companies like Microsoft use computer vision algorithms to detect known child pornography online. They offer a free service called PhotoDNA to law enforcement agencies.

PhotoDNA creates a unique digital signature (known as a “hash”) of an image which is then compared against signatures (hashes) of other photos to find copies of the same image. When matched with a database containing hashes of previously identified illegal images, PhotoDNA is an incredible tool to help detect, disrupt and report the distribution of child exploitation material. PhotoDNA is not facial recognition software and cannot be used to identify a person or object in an image. A PhotoDNA hash is not reversible, and therefore cannot be used to recreate an image.

Microsoft, PhotoDNA (https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/PhotoDNA)

Bringing Facial Recognition to the Masses

This face recognition technology is used in more products and services that you may realize

Online/Mobile Device Banking

Many national banks like Wells Fargo and Bank of America are using facial recognition in their mobile apps and in their ATMs to better verify and authenticate legitimate users

Installing dlib on AWS Lambda

Thanks to the amazing assistance of AWS Support, I finally was able to install dlib on AWS Lambda:


1. Launch a new EC2 instance:
  1) On “Choose AMI” screen, select “Amazon Linux AMI 2018.03.0 (HVM), SSD Volume Type” as your AMI.
   2) On “Step 2: Choose an Instance Type” screen, I suggest to select a medium or large type (mine is t2.large). I tried to use t2.micro but the performance is not good enough for compiling dlib.
   3) Click “Review and Launch”, then click “Launch”.
  4) Use your key pair to finalize the configuration.

2. Use ssh to connect to your new EC2 instance with your private kay pair.

3. On your new EC2 Amazon Linux instance, please do following things:
   1) Install gcc-c++: sudo yum install gcc-c++ -y
   2) Install cmake: sudo yum install cmake -y
   3) Install python36: sudo yum install python36 -y
   4) Install python36-devel: sudo yum install python36-devel -y

America Hijacked
America Hijacked

4. Install Python dependencies:
   1) Install Pillow: sudo python3 -m pip install Pillow
       It will also install “PIL” for you.
   2) Install face_recognition: sudo python3 -m pip install face_recognition
       It will also install “face_recognition_modes”, “numpy”, and “dlib”.
   Above modules will be installed to “/usr/local/lib64/python3.6/site-packages/”. Here is my file list for your reference:
   —————————————————————————————————
   [[email protected] ~]$ ls /usr/local/lib64/python3.6/site-packages/ -l
   total 9652
   drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    4096 Feb 22 08:08 dlib-19.16.0.egg-info
   -rwxr-xr-x  1 root root 9852368 Feb 22 08:08 dlib.cpython-36m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so
   drwxr-xr-x 18 root root    4096 Feb 22 08:08 numpy
   drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    4096 Feb 22 08:08 numpy-1.16.1.dist-info
   drwxr-xr-x  4 root root    4096 Feb 22 08:00 PIL
   drwxr-xr-x  2 root root    4096 Feb 22 08:00 Pillow-5.4.1.dist-info
   —————————————————————————————————

5. Zip above mentioned “/site-packages” directory and download your zip file.

6. On your local machine, unzip above mentioned zip file. Then make some new folders for each module. 
   Here is my file structure for your reference:
   dlib
      └ python
               └ dlib.so (I renamed “dlib.cpython-36m-x86_64-linux-gnu.so” to “dlib.so”)

   face_recognition
      └ python
               │ face_recognition (directory and its contents)
               └ face_recognition-1.2.3.dist-info (directory and its contents)

   face_recognition_models
      └ python
               │ face_recognition_models (directory and its contents)
               └ face_recognition_models-0.3.0.egg-info (directory and its contents)

   numpy
      └ python
               │ numpy (directory and its contents)
               └ numpy-1.16.1.dist-info (directory and its contents)

   PILPillow
      └ python
               │ PIL (directory and its contents)
               └ Pillow-5.4.1.dist-info (directory and its contents)

7. Zip each “python” directory under above five folders. You will get 5 “python.zip” files. These files are for Lambda layers.

8. Open AWS Lambda console. Create 5 new lambda layers for above zip files. Upload these zip files to each layer correspondingly. Here are some details:
   ——————————————————————–
   Name                                                    Runtime
   ——————————————————————–
   PILPillow                                              Python 3.6
   dlib                                                       Not specified
   face_recognition                                 Python 3.6
   face_recognition_models                   Python 3.6
   numpy                                                  Python 3.6
   ——————————————————————–
   Please note, “python.zip” of “face_recognition_models” is too large (approx. 100.6MB) to be uploaded from console webpage, you have to upload it to a S3 bucket first, mark it public, and then upload to Lambda layer from your S3 bucket.

9. Create a new Lambda function, add above 5 layers to your Lambda function, select Python 3.6 as runtime. Then upload your Python code with a test jpeg picture. Here is my “lambda_function.py” for your reference:
   ——————————————————————–
   import face_recognition
   import json

   print(“cold start”)

   def lambda_handler(event, context):
       fileName = “1.jpeg”

       print(“start face recognition…”)

       image = face_recognition.load_image_file(str(fileName))
       encoding = face_recognition.face_locations(image)

       print(“face recognition finish…”)

       return {
           ‘statusCode’: 200,
           ‘body’: json.dumps(encoding[0])
       }
   ——————————————————————–
   Please note, in my case, I use “1.jpeg” for testing only.

10. Increase your Lambda function’s memory to about 512 MB. The default 3s timeout is enough for simple request. In my case, the running status are:
   ——————————————————————–
   Duration: 174.37 ms
   Billed Duration: 200 ms
   Memory Size: 512 MB
   Max Memory Used: 400 MB
   ——————————————————————–
   Please note, the memory and timeout should be updated as your functionality needs.

Explanations:
————————————————————————–
1. When installdlib” and “Pillow”, they will compile some library files locally. To make sure these executables working, we need a environment similar with Lambda’s so the EC2 is for this purpose.
2. I firstly build/install everything on my EC2 with its pre-installed Python 2, but some libraries can’t be invoked by Lambda. Then I switch to Python 3, that’s what we did in step 3 and 4.
3. To build dlib and other libraries, you should install Python development tools “python36-devel”. Because dlib is written in C++, so we also need to install gcc-c++ and cmake.
4. After include all of these 5 layers, you can verify your /opt files list with mine (as attachment “Opt_file_list.txt”). You can get the file list by:
   ——————————————————————————————
   import os
   directories = os.popen(“find /opt/* -type d –maxdepth 4″).read().split(“\n”)
   return {
       ‘directories’: directories
   }
   ——————————————————————————————
5. Increasing memory allocation is important, otherwise you will encounter timeout issue.
6. Be aware of Lambda total unzipped deployment files (includes your code/dependencies) size limitation, which is 250 MB. If your Lambda function has multiple layers, the total deployment size then is the sum of all referenced layers plus the Lambda itself. Please make sure the total size is within this limitation.
7. In production, the image file should be stored in storage services like S3. The jpeg file I upload to my Lambda function is just for testing.
8. Your functionality may vary from my POC, so you may need to increase the timeout and memory for advance processing.

Has President Trump changed American politics forever?

The American people made their voices heard in the 2016 presidential campaign when they elected Donald J. Trump as the 45th president of the United States of America.

Coming off the horrible administration of Barack Obama, the political parties were torn. Could we afford another eight years of “Obama 2.0” with Hillary Clinton in the white house? Would her administration be as prosperous as her husband’s term; or, more likely would we suffer and pungle the country into deeper termole?

The neo-cons/powerful elites or the Deep State, as we refer to them, were so entrenched in the status quo that they are all suffering a group delusion. Members of the media have coined the phrase Trump Derangement Syndrome to refer to those that suffer from this psychosis. These political and social elites are completely flabbergasted and in denial of the presidential election. In their minds, democracy has failed, as there is no other reasonable explanation, at least to their logic, for Trump to have won the election.

America Hijacked
America Hijacked

Today, we find ourselves at a point in time where those in power are so desperate to remain in power, they will do anything to maintain the status quo. Political parties of Republicans or Democrats and political ideologies alike have been hijacked to divide and conquer the populous and keep the people ignorant as to whom is really pulling the strings.

The surprising turn of events was the 2016 election when the Republican party turned away from their historical support for the big business of Wall Street and focused on the working class. Was this altruistic or just pure dumb luck, who knows? Either way, the party started fighting for the forgotten folks in middle America.

The truth is that the real fascists have infiltrated the left and brand themselves under the more socially acceptable term of democratic socialism. The party is split into multiple competing factions, each trying to outdo the other with even grander social entitlements. They only thing they can collectively agree upon is their hatred for Trump and to heavily tax the wealthy to provide the poor with everything for free.

Clinton: Guns-for-Drugs Operation

A few excerpts from my book, America Hijacked

At the end of the Iran-Contra saga, and more specifically the Guns-for-Drugs operation, Vice President Bush directed CIA operations aimed at trading US weapons for cocaine and marijuana with the Contras.  The drugs were flying in 24/7 to a small airport in Mena, Arkansas, which became the base of the single largest cocaine smuggling operation in U.S. History.

America Hijacked
America Hijacked

Bill Clinton and his circle of friends lived above the law and gained access to rivers of dirty [CIA drug] money in exchange for little more than keeping their mouths shut and staying out of the way